Aortic Insufficiency

Veterinary advice should be sought before applying any treatment or vaccine.

Aortic Insufficiency

Aortic Regurgitation, Aortic Incompetence

Aortic insufficiency (AI), also referred to as aortic regurgitation (AR), is the leaking of the aortic valve of the heart that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction during ventricular diastole, from the aorta into the left ventricleis.

AI is most commonly caused by degenerative valve thickening and aortic valve prolapse. Other causes include congenital malformations, leaflet tearing, infective endocarditis, valvulitis, fenestrations, and aortic root disease.

The aortic valve regulates the blood flow from the heart's lower-left chamber (the left ventricle) into the aorta. The aorta is the main vessel that supplies blood to the rest of the body. With AI, the aortic valve in the heart does not close tightly, which causes blood to flow backwards from a widened or weakened aortic valve into the heart's lower chamber (the left ventricle). This means the left ventricle never fully empties of blood before the next load of blood arrives from the left atrium. As a result, the left ventricle of the heart expands its capacity to accommodate the leftover blood and the new blood; this means the heart must work extra hard and keeps trying to pump out all of the blood, even though it can't; this can cause the horse to become tired faster and over time can lead to heart failure. The most serious form of aortic regurgitation is caused by endocarditis, an infection that leaves holes in the valve leaflets.

Since AI tends to affect older horses, many times the condition goes unnoticed by the owner, since the expectation of performance level in older horses generally decreases with age.

Symptoms

Poor performance
Increased heart rate
Swollen abdomen
Fever
Increased respiratory rate
Congestive heart failure
Death

Diagnosis

  • History
  • Clinical signs
  • Physical exam
  • Echocardiography
  • exercising ECG
  • Noninvasive blood pressure measurement
  • Bounding or hyperdynamic arterial pulses

Treatment

TherapiesDetails
Most horses with mild cases do not require treatment
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors
Moderate to severe AI should be reexaminated twice a year and heart rate and rhythm regularly monitored

Prevention

Prognosis

Depends on the severity and progression of the disease.

Scientific Research

General Overviews

  • Weight loss icon
  • Poor performance icon

Age Range

AI is considered the most common type of valvular regurgitation in horses over 10 years of age, in which it is usually mild. Moderate to severe cases of AI are usually found in younger horses, less than 10 years of age.