Equine bullous pemphigoid

Veterinary advice should be sought before applying any treatment or vaccine.

Equine Bullous Pemphigoid

Equine bullous pemphigoid (EBP) is an IgG-mediated autoimmune blistering disease targeting the hemidesmosomal proteins bullous pemphigoid antigens 1 and 2. It is characterized by the development of large, tense blisters in the skin of the horse's face. It occurs somewhat rarely in horses, but is the most common subtype of autoimmune blistering disease in humans. EBP is caused by immunologic attack of the basement membrane zone by autoantibodies. It is suspected to be triggered by stress, neoplastic disease or other infections.

Early clinical signs include the development of crusting lesions around the horse's eyes. Over time, these lesions will turn into sub-epidermal vesicles and erosions that spread to other areas of the face--the mouth, nose, tongue and vulva. Horses with advanced stages of the disease often produce ulceration with epidermal collarettes and crusting. Many horses become depressed and lose their condition parallel to loss in appetite, fever and weight loss.

Symptoms

Initial crusting lesions around eyes
Vesicles and erosions on face
Depression
Loss in condition

Diagnosis

  • Clinical signs
  • Biopsy
  • Histopathology
  • Direct immunofluorescence
  • Immunoelectron microscopy
  • ELISA
  • immunoblotting
  • immunoadsorption

Treatment

Corticosteroids :High doses are usually required or other immunosuppressive drugs.

Prognosis

Poor, most horses undergo euthanasia

Scientific Research

General Overviews

Risk Factors

  • Stress