Dourine

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Dourine

Trypanosoma Equiperdum

Dourine is a contagious parasitic venereal disease of equines caused by the Trypanosoma equiperdum protozoan. It is an OIE-listed disease.

Once widespread, Dourine has been eradicated from many countries but is still seen in Asia, Africa, South America, southern and eastern Europe, Mexico and Russia and was reported in June 2011 in Sicily and then just north of Naples, on the Italian mainland. A single case of dourine was reported in Germany in a mare in 2002.

The disease has three stages. During stage 1 which occurs typically 1-2 weeks after infection, some horse may experience genital swelling with varying severity. Stage 2 is marked by the temporary appearance of cutaneous "silver dollar" plaques and wheals along the horse's upper body. During stage 3 the horse demonstrates neurological signs such as ataxia, staggering, stiffness, weakened hind limbs, and can develop progressive anemia. 50% of horses die during this stage.

Transmission
Unlike other trypanosomal infections, dourine is transmitted almost exclusively through breeding. Transmission from stallions to mares is more common, but mares can also transmit the disease to stallions. T. equiperdum can be found in the vaginal secretions of infected mares and the seminal fluid, mucous exudate of the penis, and sheath of stallions. Periodically, the parasites disappear from the genital tract and the animal becomes noninfectious for weeks to months. Noninfectious periods are more common late in the disease. Male donkeys can be asymptomatic carriers. Rarely, infected mares pass the infection to their foals, possibly before birth or through the milk. Infections are also thought to occur through mucous membranes such as the conjunctiva. Other means of transmission may also be possible; however, there is currently no evidence that arthropod vectors play any role in transmission. Sexually immature animals that become infected can transmit the organism when they mature.

Incubation Period
The incubation period is a few weeks to several years.

Symptoms

Fever
Swelling of genitals
Abortion
Cutaneous, silver dollar plaques
Pale mucous membranes
Weight loss
Progressive weakness
Gait abnormalities
Ataxia

Diagnosis

  • History
  • Clinical signs
  • Physical exam
  • Laboratory tests

Treatment


TreatmentDetails
Report diseaseDourine is a reportable disease, meaning that if you suspect that your horse has this disease, by law you need to report it to your veterinarian, or a state or federal veterinarian.
Supportive care
Trypanocidal drugsHas reported to be successful in endemic areas

Prevention

  • Biosecurity

Prognosis

The mortality rate in untreated cases is estimated to be 50-70%.

Scientific Research References

Good Overviews

Causative agent