Hendra virus

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Hendra Virus

Equine Morbillivirus Pneumonia

Hendra is fatal zoonotic disease caused by infection with the hendra virus (HeV), formally known as equine morbillivirus. It affects both horses and humans living in Australia. Hev is a paramyxovirus of the genus Henipavirus, subfamily Paramyxoviridae. HeV was first identified during an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in 21 Thoroughbred racehorses living in the Brisbane suburb of Hendra, Australia, in 1994. The trainer and stable hand also became infected and died. In 1995, a third human case occurred during a necropsy examination of two of the horses that had died as a result of the Hendra virus. Since then, there have been eleven outbreaks confined along the east coast of Australia, involving the death of at least 51 horses. Horses are the intermediate hosts for transmitting the infection to humans through close contact during care of sick horses or during necropsy and/or handling of dead infected horses.

Transmission
Fruit bats (Pteropus species), also known as flying foxes are the natural reservoir host for the virus. The exact mode of HeV transmission between flying-foxes, or flying-foxes to horses has not yet been definitely determined.

Incubation Period
Hendra virus has an 4-16 day incubation period. The clinical course of the disease is typically short, with most horses dying within 48 hours of initial onset of clinical signs.

Symptoms

Sudden onset
Fever up to 41°C (105.8°F)
Depression
Loss of appetite
Cyanosis
Copious frothy nasal discharge
Shallow respiration
Facial swelling
Ataxia
Disorientation
Hypersensitivity
Head pressing
Head tilt
Circling
Facial paralysis

Diagnosis

  • History
  • Clinical signs
  • Physical exam
  • Virus isolation
  • PCR
  • ELISA
  • SNT
  • Antigen detection

Treatment


TreatmentDetails
Report diseaseHendra is a reportable disease, meaning that if you suspect that your horse has this disease, by law you need to report it to your veterinarian, or a state or federal veterinarian.
Euthanasia

Prevention

  • Vaccination
  • Place all feed and water containers under cover.
  • Try to bring horses into covered enclosures or enclosed paddocks with no trees at night to reduce potential contact with flying fox colonies.
  • Remove horses from paddocks where trees attract flying foxes or fence off trees to prevent horses grazing underneath.
  • When planting trees on your property do not plant trees that attract flying foxes in or near horse paddocks. These include trees with soft fruits for example, figs and stone fruits such as peaches, loquats, and mangos.
  • Seek veterinary advice before bringing any sick horses on to your property.
  • If you have a horse that you suspect of having Hendra, do not move any other horse off the property until given the all clear by the proper authorities.
  • Keep any sick horses isolated from people and other animals.
  • Plan a quarantine area on your property where sick horses can be isolated.
  • Remember to thoroughly wash your hands after and between handling individual horses to prevent the potential spread of Hendra virus infection.

Prognosis

Poor, most horses die within 48 hours of the onset of clinical signs, or often found dead.

Scientific Research References

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