Clostridial myonecrosis is a rare and acute, bacterial disease associated with Clostridium spp., spore-forming, rod-shaped, Gram-positive, anaerobes which are known to produce a variety of toxins, many of which are fatal. Clostridium spp. are commonly found throughout the environment and inhabit soil, sewage, and marine sediments, as well as the intestines of both animals and humans.
Clostridial myonecrosis can occur from giving horses intramuscular injections or from unclean wounds, particularly those caused by sharp objects. Complications of infection can cause haemolytic anaemia, hepatopathy, osteitis, and transient hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.