Potomac horse fever (PHF)

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Potomac Horse Fever (PHF)

Equine Neorickettsiosis, Equine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis, Shasta River Crud

Potomac horse fever (PHF) is a seasonal gastrointestinal disease of horses, caused by infection with Neorickettsia risticii (formerly Ehrlichia risticii) bacterium. The disease has been reported in horses in living in the North and South America and Europe. Most cases of PHF occur in horses living on farms that are located near a fresh water body. PHF is not contagious and usually occurs sporadically as isolated incidents in individual horses at farms. Cases of PHF can occur anytime between May and November, however most cases occur between July and August. N. risticii lives on a type of flatworm known as flukes (also referred to as trematodes) that are found in fresh water bodies, such as rivers, creeks, ponds and lakes. Hence how the disease name came to be Potomac horse fever---as it was initially recognized in 1979 in horses living in the eastern United States nearby the Potomac River.

Disease course
Without treatment or prior vaccination, the course of the disease is usually five to 10 days. N. risticii initially invades the horse's intestinal tract upon ingestion, where it multiples in and attacks the white blood cells. This action causes colitis in affected horses; associated clinical signs may include fever (ranging between 102 to 107°F (38.9 to 41.7°C)), depression, and reduced appetite. By the next day or two, horses may have decreased gut sounds followed by higher-pitched tinkling sounds. Some horses may have moderate (cow-pie consistency) to severe (profuse, watery) diarrhea. Mild colic signs may also become apparent, along with swelling of the lower limbs and abdomen. As the disease progresses and allows N. risticii to enter the bloodstream, it causes horses to develop severe toxemia, due to the presence of the toxin within the bloodstream. This stage is often associated with onset of congested mucous membranes (with a thin red or purple band at the gum line, just above the teeth) and increased respiratory and heart rates. 15-30% of horses that develop toxemia progress to acute laminitis, usually within three days of initial presentation of diarrhea.

Early diagnosis and treatment of PHF is critical, as the disease is fatal to 17-36% of infected horses. The most effective and accurate form of diagnosis of PHF is through a blood and fecal PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test that detects the presence of N. risticii DNA in the horse's white blood cells. The disadvantage of the PCR test is that it does not provide a rapid diagnosis, and it can take up to a week for results from the diagnostic laboratory. If treatment is started early in the course of the disease, horses usually respond within 12 hours and symptoms resolving within 3 to 5 days.

Transmission
Horses become infected with N. risticii by directly ingesting flukes by drinking from water bodies or indirectly by ingesting insects or aquatic larvae that feed on the flukes (mayflies, caddiesflies, dragonflies, stoneflies, and damselflies) while grazing on pasture, drinking water, eating hay or feed. Recent research has suggested a possible connection between bats and barn swallows, which have been reported to frequently contain N. risticii in their gastrointestinal systems, which can potentially get passed within their feces.

Incubation Period
It may take more than two weeks for horses to develop clinical signs of PHF.

Symptoms

Mild to severe diarrhea
Fever, ranging from 102-107°F (38.9-41.7°C)
Loss of appetite
Depression
Mild colic signs
Swelling of the lower limbs and abdomen
Decreased gut sounds
Congested mucous membranes
Increased respiratory and heart rate

Diagnosis

  • History
  • Clinical signs
  • Physical exam
  • ELISA
  • PCR
  • IFA titer

Treatment


TreatmentDetails
OxytetracyclineConsidered the gold-standard in treatment, administered through intravenously (IV) once a day for 3 to 5 days.
DoxycyclineAdministered orally for mild cases
In cases of severe diarrhea and dehydrationIV fluids and electrolytes are administered to restore plasma volume.
Pain medicationAdministering non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (usually in the form of flunixin meglumine, aka Banamine)

Prevention

  • Vaccines are available for horses that live or will be traveling to high risk areas. The recommended vaccine schedule varies depending on the age, use, and location of the horse. Horses should be administered the vaccine prior to the peak seasonal occurrence of PHF (before July).
  • Fence of fresh water bodies from horses, preventing them access.
  • Turn off barn lights at night to avoid attracting flying insects
  • Eliminate areas of standing water in pastures resulting from poor drainage
  • Bring horses in at night between July to September
  • Cover horse's feed, especially if served with water to prevent accumulation of insects.
  • Remove dead insects from water sources such as buckets and water troughs. Change water regularly.
  • Utilize insect traps and other insect population control methods.

Scientific Research References

Good Overviews

Risk Factors

  • Horses live in close proximity to freshwater streams, rivers, creeks, ponds or lakes
  • Horses that graze on irrigated or poor draining pastures
  • High insect populations

Seasonality

WinterSpringSummerAutumn

Causative agent