Pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity

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Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Toxicity

Chronic Megalocytic Hepatopathy, PA Toxicity

Pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) toxicity is a common cause of liver damage in horses. It is caused by repeated consumption of fresh or dried plant material (usually considered common weeds in certain regions) that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids. There are over 6,000 different types of plant species that contain PAs, many of which are from the Boraginaceae, Compositae, and Leguminosae plant families.
PA-containing plants are often considered to be weeds in certain regions, and are often found growing in horse pastures or as contaminates of baled hay. The concentration of toxins within PA-containing plants fluctuate depending on many factors, such as stage of growth of the plant, soil medium, environmental conditions (drought, frost, flooding), application of herbicides, season, and plant part. Toxin concentrations tend to be highest during budding and flowering stages.

Due to their bitter taste, PA-containing plants are generally disliked and avoided by horses when exposed to them in pastures. However pastures which contain an overabundance of these plants with little grass, increases the chance of horses eating them. Also, if PA-containing plants are mixed in with hay, horses often don't recognize their presence. Repeated ingestion of contaminated hay is one of the most frequent ways horses are poisoned.

Toxicity occurs cumulatively over a course of a lifetime. Horses' must consume 2% to 5% of their body weight in PA-containing plants prior to developing liver disease. This often takes weeks or months after initial consumption before clinical signs develop. Unfortunately, by the time the clinical signs become apparent, the horse has already lost more than 80% of its liver function.

Symptoms

Loss of appetite
Weight loss
Photosensitivity
Colic
Altered behavior
Incoordination
Jaundice
Depression
Ventral edema
Circling
Repeated yawning
Diarrhea
Respiratory distress
Head-pressing
Walking into objects

Diagnosis

  • History
  • Clinical signs
  • Physical examination
  • Liver function tests
  • Liver enzymes
  • Hepatic biopsy
  • Necropsy

While waiting for your veterinarian

  • Removal of contaminated hay or pasture access

Treatment

TherapiesDetails
Antioxidant therapy with vitamin E
S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe)
Milk thistle extract
Anti-inflammatory/anti-fibrosis treatment with pentoxifylline
Supportive care with fluid therapy
Diet changeHigh-energy and adequate protein feed

Prevention

  • Always check hay for possible contaminated weeds prior to feeding to horses
  • Properly maintain and regularly walk pastures
  • Regularly survey pastures for possible toxic plants

Prognosis

Generally poor especially when clinical signs are present.

Scientific Research

General Overviews

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Risk Factors

  • Ingestion Of Low Quality, Weedy Hay
  • Overgrazed, Poor Maintained Pastures

Seasonality

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