Fescue poisoning

Veterinary advice should be sought before applying any treatment or vaccine.

Fescue Poisoning

Fescue Poisoning, Fescue Toxicity

Tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea is one of the most abundant cool-season grasses in the southeastern United States, occupying over 35 million acres of land. 62% of pasture grasses are infected with the endophyte fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum. N. coenophialum lives within the plants and seeds and produces varying amounts of ergot alkaloids.
Horses are extremely sensitive to ergot alkaloids, and become poisoned over time through consumption of the endophyte-infected grass or hay. The principal alkaloid responsible is ergovaline; the amount present in the plant varies considerably depending on the strain, plant part, stage of maturity, environmental conditions, and geographic region.

Fescue toxicosis is of particular importance to pregnant mares, as it can result in a number of different reproductive problems; some of which include abortions, stillborn foals, prolonged pregnancy, thickened or retained placentas, uterine infections, lack of or poor milk production, low immunoglobulin (IgG) levels in milk, higher rates of newborn foal deaths, premature placental separation (red-bag), foaling difficulty, lower conception or breeding rates, and altered serum hormone levels.

Growing horses and mature geldings and mares are also affected by endophytic-infected fescue, as studies have shown that it is associated with decreased weight gain and weight loss. Horses are also at a higher risk of developing chronic foot and leg disorders, an increased risk of laminitis, loose feces or diarrhea and more profuse sweating.

Symptoms

Prolonged pregnancy
Retained or thickened placenta
Abortion
Lower conception or breeding rate
Foaling difficulty
Lack of or poor milk production
Premature placental separation (red-bag)
Higher rates of newborn foal death
Increased risk of laminitis
Altered serum hormone levels
Loose feces or diarrhea
More profuse sweating
Weight loss/decreased weight gain

Diagnosis

  • History
  • Clinical signs
  • Laboratory testing of pasture or hay

Treatment

TherapiesDetails
Domperidone
Perhenazine
Reserpine
Removal from endophytic-infected fescue pasture
Kill infected strains of endophyte-infected pasture and replant with endophyte-free fescue seeds

Prevention

  • Knowledge of breeding dates
  • Kill infected strains of endophyte infected pasture and replant with endophyte free fescue seeds
  • Monitoring of mammary gland development
  • Removal of the mare from endophyte infected fescue pasture and hay

Scientific Research

General Overviews

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